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Mihail Eminescu Biography
Limba Romana
Mihail Eminescu Biografie
1850, January 15 Is born in Botosani, the seventh of the eleven children of Gheorghe and Raluca Eminovici. Is baptised in Uspenia church, near his home, in the city centre. The house, today disappeared, was from his mother dowry. His father Gheorghe had the rank of collector of duties on spirits and worked as bailiff on an estate from Dumbraveni (on the way to Suceava).

1850-1856 Mihai spends his childhood in Botosani and, of course, travels with his parents in a carriage to Durnesti estate, on the way to Prut river, taken on lease, to Agafton, Bucecea, Catamaresti, Cucorani etc.

1856-1858 Charming childhood in Ipotesti, together with his many brothers and sisters. Eminovici family, buy the estate with 4000 ducats, demolish the old house and build a new manor. Mihai was surrounded by his 4 brothers: Serban, Niculae, Iorgu and Ilie (he was his friend in funny games). His sisters Ruxandra and Maria had died as children. But other 4 children are born after Mihai: Aglae, Harieta, Matei and Vasile, the last will die very young.

1858-1860 After learning to classes at home, his father takes him abroad, in Bucovina, than in Austro-Hungarian empire, to Cernauti. In the passport is written that Mihai has 8 years, "black hair, black eyes, suited nose and darkish face". In the III and IV class he is in "National-Hauptschule" (a Greek-oriental primary school). He lives at Aron Pumnul (teacher and revolutionist from Transylvania), friend of his father. The other brothers are in gymnasium. Mihai learns well enough, but the military program and home sick determines him to run away, on foot, till Ipotesti. Whipped by his father is obliged to go back to Cernauti.

1860, in September The father brings his boys to Cernauti again. Mihai is at "K.K. ober-Gymnasium".

1860-1863 Goes to gymnasium. Good results in the first class ("excellent" at Romanian language, "very good" at history), but in the second class he goes like a crawfish, neglecting mathematics and Latin language, repeats the class. Runs away again to Ipotesti, is whipped again by his father, who takes him tied up to Cernauti. Repeats the second class but after Easter (1863) he is no longer in the class register.

1864 Attired by the theatre, Mihai joins the troop Fanny Tardini-Vladicescu which arrives at Hotel Moldavie in Cernauti. He is the prompter of the troop and goes with it on tour to Brasov. Mihai has been fascinated by the beauty of the actress Fanny Tardini. In the autumn is copyist in Botosani county administration till March 1865.

1865-1866 Mihai has another chance to continue his high school studies in Cernauti, privately. He takes care of Aron Pumnul's library. But in January, at only 16 years, is devastated by the death, just near him, of the teacher. Cries heavily, knowing that spiritually is the adoptive son of Aron Pumnul. In the evening he reads to his colleague Stefanelii the poem "La moartea lui Aron Pumnul" (At Aron Pumnul's death), composed in the same day. Is his first creation, published in booklet of homage dedicated to this occasion: Lacramioarele invataceilor gimnazisti din Cernauti la moartea preaiubitului lor profesor Aron Pumnul (Lilies-of-the-valley of the pupil from Cernauti gymnasium at the death of their beloved teacher Aron Pumnul). He signs M. Eminoviciu, privatist. In Ipotesti he has his first love. Casandra Elena is the daughter of Gheorghe Alupului older than Mihai. She is like a white flower of sweet cherry tree. They are walking by the waterside, by the forest, to the enchanted lake. Later, Mihai finds out that the 19 years old girl was taken by the flying spirit, dieing of dropsy. Sad, he evokes her in: De-as avea, Din strainatate, Mortua est (in the begining titled Elena), Aveam o muza or Floare albastra. Sends the poem "De-as avea" to the review Familia, of Iosif Vulcan, who publishes it immediately (March 1866), changing his name from Eminovici to Eminescu. He travels a lot on foot to Blaj ("little Rome", about which Aron Pumnul had spoked to him). With his boots torn and a perse on his back (with some books and copy book in which he have gathered some folklore), Mihai goes down the Hula hill to Blaj ("abode of the Romanian spirit"), he tries to take him exams, but do not succeed, not having learning conditions. Earns money, sleeps in an attic, eats plums with black bread and washes himself in Tarnava river (he is a good swimmer). Reads avidly the books from the gymnasium, write lyrics in parks. His money from Ipotesti dot not come in time, and he goes to Sibiu, in the search of his brother Neculai, but he was gone to Timisoara. Is autumn and he is in misery with bare feet. A theolog buys him some shoes. His passport has expired, helped by Popa Bratu from Rasinari (the grandfather of O. Goga poet) crosses the Austro-Hungarian border clandestinely to his country Romania, through the mountains. Crosses Oltenia and Muntenia attired by Bucharest.

1867-1869 Is in Giurgiu - water-side worker. Become prompter in Iorgu Caragiale's itinerant troop who's nephew, Ion Luca Caragiale, he will meet later. Together with the troop of Mihai Pascaly he makes a tour to Lugoj, Sibiu, Arad, Oravita, Buzias. He is employed, with Mihai Pascaly's help, as prompter and copyist at the National Theatre from Bucharest. Goes on a new tour with the troop Pascaly, to Galati, Iasi, Cernauti and Botosani, where is retained by his father and sent in autumn to study abroad. In September with his brother Serban goes to Praga, to the Carolina University. On October 2 is in Wien.

1869-1872 In the capital of the Habsburgic empire is student at the University. Because he does not have the diploma from finishing high school he is and "extraordinary student" not an ordinary one. He takes courses of philosophy, law, economy, Romanic languages, anatomy etc. He write a lot.

1870 Collaborates at the review Convorbiri literare from Iasi with the poem Venere si Madona. In the summer I. Negruzzi finds him in Wien, inviting him to Iasi. He meets (March 1872) the beautiful Veronica Micle, on treatment in Wien.

1871, August 15 Participates at the 400 anniversary of the Putna monastery, being one of the organisers.

1872-1874 Leaves Wien and come, through Botosani, to Iasi. On September 1 reads at Junimea society the poem Egipetul and the short story Sarmanul Dionis. Impressed, the members of the society decide to support his studies in Berlin. Titu Maiorescu wanted him to be "doctor in philosophy" and his successor at the Iasi University. Eminescu studies at Humboldt University in Berlin several sources. Maiorescu sends him 100 ducats for his doctorate, but suddently Eminescu leaves Berlin, renouncing to take the exams. Goes to Konigsberg, the town of the philosopher Kant, searching documents about Romanians history. In the summer of 1874 he arrives in Iasi without taking his doctor title. Maiorescu names him director of the Central Library, he is sworning in before Stefan Micle, the rector and husband of Veronica. He is invited to the literary evenings of Veronica Micle. Teaches German at the academical Institute.

1875 Named by Maiorescu school reviser for Iasi and Vaslui counties, visits many schools and makes detailed reports. Starts the friendship with Ion Creanga. His love for Veronica is growing.

1876, August 15 Dies his beloved mother Raluca, burries at Ipotesti. Returned to Iasi is, till 1877, journalist at Curierul de Iasi (100 lei per month).

1876 Leaves the newspaper after a conflict with other member from the staff. Leaves Iasi where he has created the pearls from the veronian cycle: "Fat-Frumos din tei", "Calin", "Lacul", "Dorinta", "Peste varfuri" s.o.

1877-1883 Journalist at the conservatory newspaper Timpul. His exhausted work at articles and poems, his disorderly life, his bohemian nature, all contribute to his physical crush. His illness begin, he has head aches.

1875-1883 Time of his masterpieces: "Luceafarul", Scrisorile (5), "Doina" s.o.

1883 In the summer, comes to Maiorescu, and declares that he wants to learn Albanian language and to turn monk. Another time, he goes to Capsa coffe house, takes out a revolver and cries out that the king must be shut because is on the liberals side. He blocks himself in a public bath for 8 hours and lets the water to flow all over. The guards break the door and put him in a strait jacket. He is interned in the health house of dr. Sutu and Bucharest will know that "Mr Eminescu is gone mad". He has 33 years, and till his death, he will live in a prolonged agony, in hospitals and madhouses, without writing something important. He lives from public charity, and after from a life annuity (250 lei per month)

November 2 1883 he arrives in Wien, accompanied by his friend Chibici-Ravneanu, being interned at Ober-Dobling Sanatorium. Is published the first edition of Eminescu's poems, looked after by Maiorescu.

1884-1885 Lives in Iasi. Travels in Italy (with Chibici). Takes baths at Liman, near Odessa.

1886 Is interned in the madhouse from the Neamt monastery, where is visited by Creanga.

1886-1888 Lives in Botosani, and his paralytic sister Harieta takes care of him. In the summer of 1887, is taken to bath in Hall, near Insbruck.

April, 1888 Leaves Botosani for Bucharest, where Veronica Micle will take him for medical care.

February, 1889 he is interned again in Sutu sanatorium. The stones look to him like diamantes, the leaves money. He thinks himself Matei Basarab Voievode.

June15, 1889 His death will come from an old endocarditis. Is buried at Bellu Cemetery with national honours.

Mihail Eminescu
Mihail Eminescu (1850-1889)
1850, 15 ianuarie Se naste la Botosani Mihai, al saptelea din unsprezece copii zamisliti de Gheorghe si Raluca Eminovici. Botezat la Biserica Uspenia, aflata aproape de casa natala, din centrul urbei. Azi disparuta, casa facea parte din zestrea mamei. Tatal Gheorghies avea rangul de caminar si muncise ca vechil pe mosia din Dumbraveni (spre Suceava).

1850-1856 Mihai isi petrece copilaria la Botosani si, desigur, calatoreste in trasura parintilor la mosia Durnesti, spre Prut, luata in arenda, la Agafton, Bucecea, Catamaresti, Cucorani etc.

1856-1858 Copilarie de farmec la Ipotesti, alaturi de droaia de plozi. Familia Eminovici, care cumparase mosia cu 4000 de galbeni, darama casa batraneasca si ridica un conac nou. Mihaita era inconjurat prin, "natala mea valcioara" de patru frati: Serban, Niculae, Iorgu si Ilie (acesta era prietenul de nazdravanii). Surorile Ruxandra si Maria au murit de copile. Dar, "dulcea mama" mai naste patru prunci, dupa Mihai: Aglae, Harieta, Matei si Vasile, ultimul incetand din viata la varsta frageda.

1858-1860 Dupa ce invatase doua clase acasa, severul caminar Gheorghies il duce peste hotar, in Bucovina stapanita atunci de Imperiul austro-ungar, la Cernauti. in pasaport, tatal declara ca Mihai de 8 ani are "parul negru, ochii negri, nasul potrivit, fata smolita". Clasele a III-a si a IV-a le urmeaza la Scoala primara greco-orientala numita "National-Hauptschule". Locuieste la Aron Pumnul (profesor si revolutionar pasoptist ardelean), prieten cu tatal sau. Ceilalti frati sunt la gimnaziu. Mihai invata binisor, dar programul militaresc si dorul de casa il determina sa fuga singur, pe jos, pana la Ipotesti. Biciul usturator al caminarului il obliga sa revina in capitala Bucovinei.

1860, in septembrie Tatal isi duce iarasi baietii, prin vama Mihaileni, la Cernauti. Mihai e inscris la "K.K. ober-Gymnasium"

1860-1863 Frecventeaza gimnaziul. Rezultate bune in prima clasa ("excelent" la romana, "foarte bine" la istorie), dar in clasa a II-a merge ca racul si, neglijand matematica si latina, ramane repetent. Fuge iarasi la Ipotesti, peste granita, mai simte o data biciul tatalui, care-l duce legat la Cernauti. Repeta clasa a II-a gimnaziala, dar dupa Pasti (1863) nu mai e inscris in cataloage.

1864 Atras de teatru, insoteste trupa Fanny Tardini-Vladicescu care soseste la Hotel Moldova din Cernauti. Este angajat ca sufleur si pleaca in turneu cu trupa la Brasov. Era fascinat de frumusetea actritei Fanny Tardini. Toamna e copist in administratia judetului Botosani, pana in martie 1865.

1865-1866 Mihai mai are o sansa: sa-si continue la Cernauti studiile liceale in particular. Are grija de biblioteca lui Aron Pumnul. Dar in ianuarie, cand numara 16 ani, e zguduit de moartea, tocmai langa el, a profesorului. Plange in hohote, fiindca se stie, spiritul vorbind, fiul adoptiv al ardeleanului. Seara, ii citeste colegului Stefanelii poema La moartea lui Aron Pumnul, compusa in acea zi. E prima creatie, publicata in brosura omagiala Lacramioarele invataceilor gimnazisti din Cernauti la moartea preaiubitului lor profesor Aron Pumnul, tiparita cu aceasta ocazie. Semna: M. Eminoviciu, privatist. La Ipotesti, adolescentul Mihai e coplesit de prima iubire. Se zice ca o chema Casandra Elena si era fiica lui Gheorghe Alupului. Arata ca floarea alba de cires. Se plimba prin lunci, prin codru, pana la lacul fermecat. E mai mare decat junele amorezat. Mai apoi, fiind departe, Mihai afla ca fata de 19 ani a fost luata de zburatorul, rapusa de dropica (hidropizie) si e inmormantata in tintirim. Trist, o evoca in: De-as avea, Din strainatate, Mortua est (intitulata la inceput Elena), Aveam o muza ori Floare albastra. Trimite poezia De-as avea revistei Familia, condusa de Iosif Vulcan, care o publica imediat (martie 1866), schimbandu-i numele din Eminovici in Eminescu. Calatoreste mai mult pe jos la Blaj ("mica Roma", despre care-i vorbise Pumnul). Cu ghetele rupte si o traista in spinare (cu niste carti si caiete in care adunase folclor), Mihai coboara de pe dealul Hula in "vatra romanismului" - Blaj, incearca sa-si dea examenele, dar nu le ia, neavand conditii de invatatura. Fara parale, doarme intr-un pod de fan, imbuca din piata prune cu paine neagra si se scalda in Tarnava (fiind un bun inotator). Citeste cu nesat cartile de la gimnaziu, scrie versuri prin parcuri. Banii de la Ipotesti nu-i vin la timp si pleaca la Sibiu, in cautarea fratelui sau Neculai, dar acesta plecase la Timisoara. La vremea strugurilor, este in mizerie, cu picioarele goale. Un teolog ii da niste ghete. Pasaportul fiind expirat, este ajutat de Popa Bratu din Rasinari (bunicul dinspre mama al poetului O. Goga) sa treaca clandestin granita austro-ungara spre tara sa, Romania, furisandu-se prin munti. Strabate Oltenia si Muntenia, atras de Bucuresti.

1867-1869 il aflam la Giurgiu - hamal in port. Devine sufleur in trupa ambulanta a lui Iorgu Caragiale si, apoi, il cunoaste pe nepotul acestuia, Ion Luca Caragiale. impreuna cu trupa teatrala a lui Mihai Pascaly face un turneu la Lugoj, Sibiu, Arad, Oravita, Buzias. Se angajeaza, cu ajutorul acestuia, ca "sufleur II si copist" la Teatrul National din Bucuresti. intreprinde un nou turneu, cu trupa Pascaly, la Galati, Iasi, Cernauti si Botosani, unde e retinut de tatal sau Gheorghies si trimis, toamna, la studii in strainatate. in septembrie, purcede cu fratele cel mare Serban la Praga, incercand sa se inscrie la Universitatea Carolina. isi face o fotografie, in atelierul pictorului-fotograf Jan Tomas, insa pleaca din acest oras. La 2 octombrie il aflam la Viena.

1869-1872 in capitala Imperiului Habsburgic figureaza ca student la Universitate. Neavand diploma de bacalaureat, e inscris ca "audient extraordinar" si nu ca "student ordinar", precum ceilalti. Urmeaza cursuri de filosofie, drept, economie politica, limbi romanice, anatomie etc. Scrie mult.

1870 Colaboreaza la revista Convorbiri literare din Iasi cu poezia Venere si Madona. Vara, I. Negruzzi il gaseste la Viena, invitandu-l sa se stabileasca in Iasi. O cunoaste la Viena (martie 1872) pe frumoasa doamna Veronica Micle, venita la un tratament.

1871, 15 august Participa la sarbatorirea a 400 de ani de la sfintirea manastirii Putna, fiind unul dintre organizatori.

1872-1874 Paraseste Viena si vine, prin Botosani, la Iasi. La 1 septembrie citeste la sedinta Junimii poezia Egipetul si nuvela Sarmanul Dionis. Impresionati, membrii societatii decid sa-i acorde o importanta suma de bani pentru continuarea studiilor la Berlin. Titu Maiorescu il voia "doctor in filozofie" si urmas al sau la catedra din Iasi. Se inscrie la Universitatea Humboldt din Berlin si frecventeaza iarasi cursuri diverse. Maiorescu ii trimite 100 de galbeni, ca sa-si ia doctoratul, insa Eminescu paraseste brusc Berlinul, renuntand la examene. Calatoreste cu trenul tocmai la Marea Baltica, la Konigsberg, orasul marelui filozof Kant, cautand documente din istoria romanilor. in plina vara 1874, descinde la Iasi, fara titlul de doctor in filozofie. Supararea lui Maiorescu va trece repede. ii ofera postul de director al Bibliotecii Centrale, depunand juramantul in fata rectorului Stefan Micle, sotul Veronicai. Este poftit in salonasul literar al V. Micle, din casa rectorului. Preda germana la Institutul Academic.

1875 Numit de Maiorescu revizor scolar pentru judetele Iasi si Vaslui, viziteaza multe scoli si face rapoarte detaliate. Se imprieteneste cu Ion Creanga. Dragostea pentru Veronica se amplifica.

1876, 15 august Moare "dulcea mama" Raluca, inmormantand-o la Ipotesti. Revenit la Iasi e, pana in 1877, redactor la Curierul de Iasi (100 de lei lunar).

1876 Paraseste redactia, in urma unui conflict cu cei de la "foaia vitelor de pripas". Totodata, pleaca din Iasi, unde statuse 4 ani si crease perlele din ciclul veronian: Fat-Frumos din tei, Calin, Lacul, Dorinta, Peste varfuri s.a.

1877-1883 Redactor al ziarului conservator Timpul. Munca epuizanta la articole si poezii, viata intima dezordonata, firea de boem - toate contribuie la daramarea sa psihica. Se declanseaza boala, are dureri de cap.

1875-1883 Timpul capodoperelor: Luceafarul, Scrisorile (5 la numar), Doina s.a.

1883 Vara, acasa la Maiorescu, Eminescu ii declara ca vrea sa invete albaneza si sa se calugareasca. Altadata, se duce la cafeneaua "Capsa", scoate revolverul si racneste ca regele trebuie impuscat, pentru ca-i tine pe liberali in brate. Apoi se baricadeaza intr-o baie publica, opt ore, lasand apa sa se reverse peste tot. Gardienii sparg usa si-i pun camasa de forta. Ajunge la casa de sanatate a dr. Sutu si Bucurestiul afla ca "D-l Eminescu a innebunit". Are 33 de ani si, pana la moarte, va trai intr-o agonie prelunga, prin spitale si ospicii, fara a mai putea scrie ceva important. Vietuieste din mila publica, apoi din mica pensie viagera (250 lei lunar).

2 noiembrie 1883 soseste la Viena, insotit de prietenul Chibici-Ravneanu, fiind internat la Sanatoriul Ober-Dobling. Apare prima editie a poeziilor lui Eminescu, ingrijita de Maiorescu.

1884-1885 Locuieste la Iasi. Calatoreste in Italia (cu Chibici). Apoi face bai la Liman, langa Odesa.

1886 Este internat la ospiciul de la manastirea Neamt, unde il viziteaza Creanga.

1886-1888 Locuieste la Botosani, ingrijit de sora sa paralitica Harieta. in vara lui 1887, e dus la bai, la Hall, aproape de Insbruck.

1888, aprilie Pleaca de la Botosani la Bucuresti, unde V. Micle il ia pentru ingrijiri medicale.

1889, februarie Internat din nou la Sanatoriul dr. Sutu. Pietrele i se par diamante, frunzele bani. Se crede voievodul Matei Basarab.

1889, 15 iunie Pacientul Petrea Poenarul il loveste in cap cu o piatra trasa din prastie. Dar moartea e consecinta unei endocardite vechi. Creierul sau cantareste 1495 de grame, aproape cat al poetului german Schiller. Este inmormantat la Bellu, cu onoruri nationale.
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